Solid lipid nanoparticles: A possible vehicle for zinc oxide and octocrylene
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An efficient sunscreen formulation shows good absorption in the relevant UV range. Efficacy also means that the UV absorber must be easily incorporated in any kind of formulation. In this study, a chemical absorber, octocrylene, and one of the most important physical blockers, zinc oxide, could be successfully incorporated into Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (SLN) systems which themselves have UV blocking potential similar to physical sunscreens, and remained stable for a period of 360 days while providing UVA and UVB protection. Crystalline structure related to the chemical nature of the solid lipid is a key factor to decide whether a sunscreening agent will be expelled or incorporated in the long-term and for a controlled optimization of active ingredient incorporation and loading, intensive characterization of the physical state of the lipid particles was highly essential. Thus, FT-IR, NMR, XRD and DSC analyses were performed and the results did not indicate stability problems. pH values of the SLN systems were found to be between 5.4-5.9 in all formulations which may be buffered by the skin. Transpore (TM) test results proved the UV blocking potential of the SLNs with not any active ingredient and the synergistic effects by the incorporation of molecular sunscreens. Therefore, concentration of molecular sunscreens in the formulations was decreased to 0.6%. UVA and UVB screening potentials of octocrylene and zinc oxide formulations were compared in the 290-400 nm wavelength region. Zinc oxide loaded SLN suspensions were found to be more effective in the UVA region while octocrylene loaded ones performed better in the UVB region.