Effect of Lignite Addition and Steam on the Pyrolysis of Turkish Oil Shales
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Steam was found to be a more effective sweep gas than nitrogen at low velocities in fixed-bed pyrolysis of Goynuk oil shale but, at higher velocities and in fluidized-bed pyrolysis, the differences were considerably less marked. Relatively small but significant synergistic effects were observed between lignites and the two oil shales investigated - Goynuk and Seyitomer - under static retorting conditions. These effects were more pronounced with large concentrations of oil shales but disappeared in fluidized-bed pyrolysis, where conversions are considerably higher because mass transfer limitations largely disappear.