Almanca öğretmeni adaylarının sözcük öğreniminde kullandıkları öğrenme stratejileri
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Yabancı Dil öğreniminde geleneksel dilbilgisi kurallarını temel alan dil öğretim yöntemleri artık yerini farklı, öğrencilerin daha etkin olduğu dil öğretim yöntemlerine, tekniklerine ve stratejilerine bırakmıştır. Öğrenci artık öğrenme yollarını daha bilinçli kullanarak öğrenme kapasitelerini genişletmekte, bilgiyi kodlama- depolama ve çağrışım sağlayan dolaylı ve dolaysız öğrenme stratejileriyle edindikleri bilgilere yenilerini ekleyerek, hedeflerine daha kolay yaklaşabilmektedirler. İkinci yabancı dil öğrenme sürecinde de öğrencilerin karşı karşıya kalacağı en önemli sorunlardan biri sözcük öğrenimidir. Bu çalışmada Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Alman Dili Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı programının 1., 2., 3., 4., sınıflarında 2011-2012 Eğitim Öğretim yılının bahar döneminde öğrenim görmekte olan 178 Öğretmen adayının ikinci yabancı dil olarak Almanca öğrenirken sözcük öğreniminde kullandıkları öğrenme stratejilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmış, cinsiyet, sınıf gibi değişkenlere bakılarak kullanılan stratejiler belirlenmiştir.Language teaching methods based on traditional grammar rules have left their places to methods, techniques and strategies that are different and where students are active in learning. Researchers grouped learning in four main categories as Behaviorist Learning Approach, Cognitive Learning Approach, Affective Learning Approach and Brain Based Learning Approach. According to Cognitive Approach, which deals with language learning, a student passes through a cognitive process throughout his language learning experience. It is essential to reach the four basic skill (Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing) of the target language. This approach is effective in emerging learning strategies, and allows learners to take the responsibility of their own learning, and participate learning actively. Thus, learners, now, reach their targets easily by adding knowledge to what they already know using direct and indirect learning strategies that helps to code, store and restore information and expand their learning capacities by using learning ways more consciously. According to the studies held in the field, a number of learning strategies has been improved taking four basic language skills into consideration, and these strategies are separated into two groups as Indirect Leaning Strategies and Direct Learning Strategies. It is vital for a language learner who has the knowledge of direct and indirect learning strategies to learn these strategies and use them in his on learning. Here the learning responsibility lies upon the learner himself. Another problem that learners have to face while learning a second language is vocabulary learning. The larger the vocabulary is the easier it is to communicate. To speak a language fluently one should know how to produce the sounds in the language properly. However, knowing how to produce sounds alone is not enough to speak the language. What should be done to learn vocabulary, what kind of a why should be followed? Naturally, just learning a vocabulary item is not enough to have an effective communication. The aim in learning a word should be to remember and use it when needed because learning is not only taking the knowledge as it is given, but also interpreting, shaping, and producing new meanings. While learning a Word, it is necessary to learn the meaning, use and grammar of the Word as well. However, Schmitt emphasized that using all the learning strategies while learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a waste of time and strength, and improved (VLS) Vocabulary Learning Strategies to ease vocabulary learning in five headings; Determination Strategies, Social Strategies, Memory Strategies, Cognitive Strategies and Metacognitive Strategies. The aim of this study is to determine the vocabulary learning strategies that 178 teacher candidates studying at Anadolu university Education Faculty German Language and Education Department at 1., 2., 3., and 4., grades during 2011-2012 academic year use while learning German as a second language, and to suggest learning strategies that direct students along with four basic learning skills to help students learn vocabulary more easily. As the data collection tool, a questionnaire based on Schmitt&#8217;s Vocabulary Learning Strategies; Determination Strategies, Social Strategies, Memory Strategies, Cognitive Strategies and Metacognitive Strategies was prepared, given to teacher candidates who learn German as a Second Language, and results were analyzed and evaluated. When the data were analyzed and the excess of female teacher candidates was taken into consideration, it is seen that female learners used memory and cognitive strategies more than male students. The results of the study showed that German Language teacher candidates followed some vocabulary learning strategies in the choice, code, store them into their long-term memory, and recall when needed, and became more successful in learning vocabulary items than the students who do not know and use strategies. All the teacher candidates stated that vocabulary learning in language learning is very important. Moreover, the data related to the words that students stated they learn more in some courses provided in Education Faculty German Language and Education Department in 2011-2012 academic-year spring term, and the orders students do related to the strategies they use in vocabulary learning were provided in tables. When the grades of the students were taken into consideration, it was revealed that 1. And 2. Grade students were found to use only memory strategies, and 4. And 5. Grade students were found to use memory strategies by attaching cognitive strategies to it. It is determined that teacher candidates chose to learn vocabulary by written forms and pronunciation, relating words with synonyms and antonyms, and using the newly learned words in context. When all these data were evaluated it is revealed that memory strategies have a bigger role in vocabulary learning compared with other strategies, and help memorize and recall the newly learned vocabulary more easily. Moreover, memory strategies also consist of strategies that learners could associate and integrate what they learned with what they already know in their mother tongue. Considering that German language is thought and learned as a second language, teacher candidates learning this language stated that they use the methods and techniques used in learning English language which the students learn as first foreign language and that belongs to the same language family as the German language, they use the strategies used when they learn English. Taking all these evaluations into consideration, ways to affect German teacher candidates positively by directing them to strategies that might be helpful for them should be found. As they are the learners of a new foreign language, they should be taught the ways of effective word usage, scientific research methods that they could use, how to prepare a word book, which strategies could be helpful in learning vocabulary. Moreover, they should also be informed about learning strategies where they could learn vocabulary more easily along with the four main language skills that support the improvement of language skills in language books, and they should be allowed to participate in activities and applications to improve their field knowledge. Entertaining settings where students could share the information they gathered through games, songs, puzzles, etc. should be provided. Moreover, examples and similarities, visual support, and application fields aiming to improve understanding retention should be provided, and the scope of the material they use should be extended. According to these results, it could be claimed that teacher candidates should be directed to strategies that could be beneficial for them in learning vocabulary.
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