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dc.contributor.authorDemirel, Gülçin
dc.contributor.authorÖzden, Özlem
dc.contributor.authorDöğeroğlu, Tuncay
dc.contributor.authorGaga, Eftade Emine
dc.descriptionWOS: 000331923900060en_US
dc.descriptionPubMed ID: 24388904en_US
dc.description.abstractPersonal exposures of 65 primary school children to benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes (BTEX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O-3) were measured during 24 h by using organic vapor monitors and tailor-made passive samplers. Two schools were selected to represent students living in more polluted (urban) and less polluted. (sub-urban) areas in the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. The pollutant concentrations were also measured in indoor and outdoor environments during the personal sampling to investigate the contribution of each micro-environment on measured personal concentrations. Socio-demographic and personal time-activity data were collected by means of questionnaires and half-hour-time resolution activity diaries. Personal exposure concentrations were found to be correlated with indoor home concentrations. Personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of all studied pollutants except for ozone were found to be higher for the students living at the urban traffic site. Ozone, on the other hand, had higher concentrations at the sub-urban site for all three types of measurements (personal, indoor and outdoor). Analysis of the questionnaire data pointed out to environmental tobacco smoke, use of solvent based products, and petrol station nearby as factors that affect personal exposure concentrations. Cancer and non-cancer risks were estimated using the personal exposure concentrations. The mean cancer risk for the urban school children (1.7 x 10(-5)) was found to be higher than the sub-urban school children (0.88 x 10(-5)). Children living with smoking parents had higher risk levels (1.7 x 10(-5)) than children living with nonsmoking parents (1.08 x 10(-5)). Overall, the risk levels were <1 x 10(-4). All hazard quotient values for BTEX for the non-cancer health effects were <1 based on the calculations EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) part Fen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDutch Ministry of Foreign Affairsen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors thank to all students, teachers and parents for their voluntary contribution. We also thank to Dr. Sait C. Sofuoglu for his helpful comments and editorial corrections. This study was a part of the project "Together towards clean air in Eskisehir and Iskenderun, Turkey" and financed by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.en_US
dc.publisherElsevier Science BVen_US
dc.subjectPersonal Exposureen_US
dc.subjectIndoor Pollutantsen_US
dc.subjectRisk Assessmenten_US
dc.titlePersonal exposure of primary school children to BTEX, NO2 and ozone in Eskisehir, Turkey: Relationship with indoor/outdoor concentrations and risk assessmenten_US
dc.relation.journalScience of the Total Environmenten_US
dc.contributor.departmentAnadolu Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümüen_US
dc.relation.publicationcategoryMakale - Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi - Kurum Öğretim Elemanıen_US
dc.contributor.institutionauthorDöğeroğlu, Tuncay
dc.contributor.institutionauthorGaga, Eftade Emine

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