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dc.contributor.authorBozkurt, Zehra
dc.contributor.authorÜzmez, Özlem Özden
dc.contributor.authorDöğeroğlu, Tuncay
dc.contributor.authorArtun, gülzade
dc.contributor.authorGaga, Eftade Emine
dc.descriptionWOS: 000447035900017en_US
dc.description.abstractIn this research, seasonal and spatial distributions of inorganic and organic pollutants (sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O-3) and also volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), were determined by passive sampling technique. Fifty sampling sites were selected considering possible sources in the study area. The sampling area were classified as urban (n=23), industrial (n=17) and rural (n=10) regions. Sampling campaigns were carried out for two-week periods in fall, winter, spring and summer seasons in all regions. Benzene and toluene concentrations were found to be the highest in winter at the traffic-dense sites and lowest concentrations were measured at rural sampling sites in summer. Concentrations of NO2 were higher at sampling sites with high traffic density in winter. A much uniform distribution was observed for SO2 in all seasons. However higher levels were observed in winter compared to other seasons due to use of coal for domestic heating. Low O-3 concentrations were measured in winter while higher concentrations were measured in summer. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), four factors (gasoline vehicle emissions, diesel vehicle emissions, industrial emissions and fossil fuel combustion) were identified that could explain about 78% of the system variance of the measured pollutants in the city. Health risk assessment revealed that the safe level of 1 x 10(-6) (United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) acceptable risk value) was exceeded for benzene in all sampling sites in whole region, but non-carcinogenic risk values were at safe level.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDuzce University Scientific Research Projects Coordinator (DUBAP) [2014.06.02.219]en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by the Duzce University Scientific Research Projects Coordinator (DUBAP) (Project number: 2014.06.02.219).en_US
dc.publisherTurkish Natl Committee Air Pollution Res & Control-Tuncapen_US
dc.subjectAir Pollutionen_US
dc.subjectVolatile Organic Compoundsen_US
dc.subjectInorganic Gaseous Compoundsen_US
dc.subjectPassive Samplingen_US
dc.subjectRisk Assessmenten_US
dc.titleAtmospheric concentrations of SO2, NO2, ozone and VOCs in Duzce, Turkey using passive air samplers: Sources, spatial and seasonal variations and health risk estimationen_US
dc.relation.journalAtmospheric Pollution Researchen_US
dc.contributor.departmentAnadolu Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümüen_US
dc.relation.publicationcategoryMakale - Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi - Kurum Öğretim Elemanıen_US
dc.contributor.institutionauthorDöğeroğlu, Tuncay
dc.contributor.institutionauthorGaga, Eftade Emine

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