Determination of Dynamically Stable Electrenes toward Ultrafast Charging Battery Applications
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Electrenes, an atomically thin form of layered electrides, are very recent members of the 2D materials family. In this work, we employed first principle calculations to determine stable, exfoliatable, and application-promising 2D electrene materials among possible M2X compounds, where M is a group II-A metal and X is a nonmetal element (C, N, P, As, and Sb). The promise of stable electrene compounds for battery applications is assessed via their exfoliation energy, adsorption properties, and migration energy barriers toward relevant Li, Na, K, and Ca atoms. Our calculations revealed five new stable electrene candidates in addition to previously known Ca2N and Sr2N. Among these seven dynamically stable electrenes, Ba2As, Ba2P, Ba2Sb, Ca2N, Sr2N, and Sr2P are found to be very promising for either K or Na ion batteries due to their extremely low migration energy barriers (5-16 meV), which roughly demonstrates 105 times higher mobility than graphene and two to four times higher mobility than other promising 2D materials such as MXene (Mo2C).