Exploring EFL students casual attributions of perceived success and failure in language learning process
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The main purpose of this study was to analyze Anadolu University Preparatory School students’ (elementary and Lower-Intermediate levels) causal attributions about their perceived success and failure in English language learning process. Their attributions were analyzed and compared in terms of perceived locus of causality, stability and controllability. Also, the study intended to find out whether causal dimensionality of the students was healthy / unhealthy for forming adaptive / maladaptive future behaviors. The sample consisted of 158 students. The participants responded to a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of 6 questions. First three questions concerned their English background and perceived success or failure in language learning process. The other questions concerned the perceived causes of their outcomes, perceived underlying dimensions of their attributions and definition of the notion of success. Content analysis of the data was carried out independently by the esearcher and one member of School of Foreign Languages at Anadolu University using Constant Comparison Method. The students were grouped according to their responses as success-oriented and failure-oriented. Each attribution was labeled and frequency percentages were calculated. For causal dimensionality of perceived success and failure situations, the number of the marks for yes/no questions that aimed to explore locus of causality, stability and controllability were calculated and frequency percentages were found. In order to explore possible differences between success-oriented and failure-oriented group’s causal dimensionality profiles, chi-square analysis was done. The results indicated that the number of the students who perceive themselves as unsuccessful was slightly more than those who perceive themselves successful. Participants reported more causal attributions for failure than they did for success. Success-oriented students demonstrated significantly more internal, controllable, and relatively mo re stable attributional styles than failure-oriented students, a finding supported by literature on attribution theory. Finally, repeat students’ causal dimensionality of failure showed similar characteristics with that of failure-oriented group. The most frequently reported causes of success and failure, and causal dimensionality styles were discussed in the context of Weiner’s attributional model of achievement motivation and possible classroom implications were suggested.
- Tez Koleksiyonu